Viewpoint

Ethiopia’s Oromo youth are disaffected—but also divided, co-opted, and demoralized

Co-option and ego-driven ideological splits help explain why renewed Oromo discontent is not leading to a resurgent uprising.

Many expected a revitalized Oromo uprising from the qeerroo youth movement after the arrest of the prominent Oromo opposition leaders including Jawar Mohammed and Bekele Gerba in June last year.

However, that has not happened. Why?

Bucking expectations, the qeerroo movement is now fragmented and weak. There are seven major factors why we are not seeing concerted opposition activity, despite the sense of betrayal many Oromos possess about the Prime Minister.

  • Egocentric rivalry to ‘own’ qeerroo
  • The tension between Oromo Liberation Front and Jawar Mohammed
  • The role of Lemma Megersa
  • Qeerroo leaders’ co-option
  • Resort to force
  • Oromo protestant support for Abiy
  • Loss of faith
Egocentric rivalry

The egocentric disagreement over the meaning of qeerro and its ownership is one of the key factors behind the disintegration of the movement. In Oromiffa, the word ‘qeerroo’ means an unmarried young man. Its female equivalent is ‘qarree’.

From the perspective of political movement, the term symbolizes the Oromo youth’s struggle for political freedom. It refers to the youth who sacrifice themselves for the Oromo cause.

In the political scene, the term was first applied in April 2011 by a youth organization named Qeerroo Bilisummaa Oromoo (QBO) (‘Youth for Oromia’s Freedom’). Inspired by the Arab Spring, the Oromo youth from all over the world formed the National Youth Movement for Freedom and Democracy (NYMFD) towards a coordinated civil disobedience movement. Before April 2011, there was no movement or organization by the term ‘qeerroo’.

The disagreement and rivalry over taking the credit for creating qeerroo is mainly between Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) and Jawar.

OLF argues the QBO was founded in the evolution of the Oromo students’ prolonged struggle to overthrow the TPLF-dominated EPRDF regime. This struggle was under the umbrella of OLF. So, OLF is the founder of QBO.

The other group disagrees with this. It credits Jawar as the father of the qeerroo movement. Indeed, many Oromos believe it is Jawar who overthrow TPLF. They accept him as the true leader of the qeerroo movement. Others believe Jawar is not the engine of the movement, but the gear of the uprising.

There is also another group that claims the qeerroo movement was just a spontaneous uprising with no clear structure and long-term objectives. They say it was just an unplanned movement motivated by the outrage over land grabbing and eviction of farmers.

These disagreements among the political elite in taking credit, and in defining the movement itself, have contributed a lot to the weakening of qeerroo. Their insincerity and ego reveal themselves when they try to hijack the victory achieved by the movement.

OLF and Jawar tension

The second factor behind the disintegration of the qeerroo movement is the tension between OLF and Jawar.

In 2009, Jawar published an article titled “The failure to deliver: the journey of Oromo Liberation Front in the last two decades.”

This piece led Jawar and OLF into a major confrontation. It was perceived negatively by many Oromos that are strongly attached to OLF. To lots of Oromos, OLF is not simply a political organization, but an embodiment of the centuries-long Oromo struggle.  The article created division between the faction of qeerroo that supports OLF and the other faction that supports Jawar.  The division was intensified when Jawar took the role of convincing the OLF army to disarm itself, which was portrayed as him acting on the behalf of the Ethiopian state.

Lemma’s role

In the 2015-18 uprising, Lemma Megersa had popular support. In fact, it was ‘Team Lemma’ that the Oromo youth knew more than Abiy Ahmed. Today, there are some who still hope for the return of the once-popular qeerroo movement that was supported by ‘Team Lemma.’  They think Abiy has betrayed Lemma and the Oromo cause that Lemma stood for.

People in this faction are still hopeful that Lemma will return to the political arena and rescue the Oromo struggle. The hope is that Lemma and his allies will come up with a tactic to sideline Abiy and his regime, just like they did to TPLF.  Qeerroos in this category are reluctant neither to oppose nor to support the authorities.

Qeerroo leaders’ co-option

I have been a participant in the qeerroo movement. As a member, I have seen how the authorities bought qeerroo organizers by offering them land, political positions, and a large amount of money. I was offered a political position. I refused to accept their offer. And just because I refused to accept their offer, they threw me in jail, twice.

The co-option which was aimed at weakening the qeerroo movement was made in all parts of Oromia. For instance, more than half of the cabinet posts in Ginchi are now composed of individuals who previously identified themselves as ‘qeerroo’.

These individuals are not true qeerroo. They are self-centered opportunists who were previously unemployed individuals. These are individuals who won’t hesitate to kill their close friends and relatives if there is something to be gained from such acts.

By organizing five to ten qeerroos under small enterprises and giving them a 200,000 birr loan, the Ginchi administration invested a lot to manipulate the members and weaken the movement.

The authorities in Ginchi created division and enmity between the qeerroo groups in the town by giving the town’s old bus station to one group and the new station to the other. Bus stations are a source of income for many, and this is an easy way to create friction. In 2020, there was a fight between the two groups.

Another instance of co-option was following the qeerroo protest a year and a half ago in Ambo. After a discussion with Takele Uma, the then-mayor of Addis Abeba, the leaders of the protest were given two-bedroom condominium houses near Addis Ababa. 

Resort to force

There are factions of qeerroo that have given up on peaceful struggle. These violent groups believe that the current regime can only be overthrown through armed struggle. They are now supporting ‘Jaal Marro’ and his Oromo Liberation Army (OLA).

Some qeerroo elements are planning to make a parallel movement with the OLA. It seems as though they are waiting for the right moment to act, and they feel like they have an advantage over the government as the government is fighting in different battles—Tigray, Sudan, Metekel, Wellega, Wollo. The increasing international pressure on the federal government is also something that they think they can use to their advantage.

Identity politics

There are qeerroo groups who support the Prime Minister just because he is an Oromo. And there are others that support him just because he shares their religious faith.

Despite the facts on the ground, those who belong to this category believe that Abiy is the answer all the Oromo questions they have been fighting for. They hate those who oppose Abiy and argue that the Oromo opposition parties are against him not because they care about the Oromo, but, instead, for the sake of political power and influence.

Similarly, protestant qeerroos and qaarrees support him because Abiy is a protestant Christian. This particularly true of women. Plenty of churches preach that we should stand by him and support him as he is from God. They also say that Abiy’s opponents attack and undermine him because of his Christian faith.

Frustrated qeerroos

Other qeerroos are worn out by the endless protests. Frustrated by the perceived betrayal of the Prime Minister, they have given up on political participation.

The coming election will not bring anything new either. Many Oromo youths have already lost hope in the elections due to the imprisonment of members and leaders of Oromo opposition parties such as OLF and Oromo Federalist Congress.

The future, therefore, is uncertain: qeerroo have been very patient with Abiy and the ruling party, but you never know when and where the qeerroo movement will resume again. One thing we can be sure about is that, given the level of discontent, the qeerroo movement is like a dormant volcano.

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This is the author’s viewpoint. However, Ethiopia Insight will correct clear factual errors.

The author lives in Ginchi and requested anonymity for fear of persecution by rivals or the authorities.

Main photo: Oromo youth (qeerroo) gathering outside Jawar Mohammed’s house during the tension that occurred after he claimed security forces attempted to remove his security guards in the middle of the night; 23 October 2019; Reuters

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About the author

Mistir Sew

This is a generic byline for all anonymous authors. The anonymity could be because they fear repercussions, as they are not authorized by their employers to express their views publicly, or for other reasons.

11 Comments

  • I am amazed by commenter of this article. Since abiye came to power Oromo have become influencal in Ethiopian politics like never before. To start with they became Addis Abeba mayors without election, and oromo language became dominat in Ethiopian media landscape. Of course Abiye at time allied with Amhara, but he have to do so because they are also Ethiopian which he need their support. I can’t figure out what extreme Oromo want from Abiye? Are they seeking complete domination of Ethiopia , like Amhara was in imperial time? Do they want Addis Abeba without asking the wishes of people of Addis Abeba? Or do they want independence from Ethiopia? Please inform here….

  • I am amazed by commenter of this article. Since abiye came to power Oromo have become influencal in Ethiopian politics like never before. To start with they became Addis Abeba mayors without election, and oromo language became dominat in Ethiopian media landscape. Of course Abiye at time allied with Amhara, but he have to do so because they are also Ethiopian which he need their support. I can’t figure out what extreme Oromo want from Abiye? Are they seeking complete domination of Ethiopia , like Amhara was in imperial time? Do they want Addis Abeba without asking the wishes of people of Addis Abeba? Or do they want independence from Ethiopia? Please inform here….

  • At the height of querro movement which lasts for several months, and the Abiy government was weak, in Harar city, the Oromo youth was busy in seizing bajajs(three-wheeled rick-shaws), businesses, homes, buildings, farms, killing people, assaulting Harari government officials, Harari doctors, Traffic police; the daily chanting of “we will drive out Hadere from Harar”, etc,The Harar Oromo regional government took advantage of the situation, twisted the arms of Harari government officials and reformed the Harari regional constitution in their favor as to leave Hararis very weak. in response what did Harari do? They pray to Allah that he changes the wrong to right!It may take time,but the will of Allah will prevail in the end. Meantime, we live in fear and worry daily of what will they do next.

  • Not only Oromos youth disaffected and but all Ethiopian youth of every ethnic background and every region are disaffected and dissolluioned with the Abiy’a regime just like they were with its predecessor of TPLF economicallyy and politically speaking. Imagine a nation with a 100 population size where more than 65% are under 25 age cohort with no job and economic prospect? It’s time bomb waiting to explode any time. Have you ever noticedl the multitudebyoung faces roaming, hustling or idling in urban centres in every day like in Addis and Deri Deba,? It’s scary situation.

  • You don’t have any clue! This piece is the cheapest read on this website yet!
    I am 100 sure nothing is wrong with Qeerrooo! And wen can tell you what happen!

    What I can say is the article is written by unknown person called himslef Mistir Sew! As the name indicates it is written by unknown person of Amhara elites from the ground, make up, just for propaganda!

    But how come unknown person writes on the website thou?? Source is very important! That is what we call credibility!

  • Who are the editors of this piece?

    Breaking down the 7 major factors
    1.Egocentric rivalry two ‘own’ Qerroo : This cannot be a factor because all those who you say rivaled to ‘own’ Qerroo are behind bars. For once it would have been now that Qerroo would have fought fiercely, had what you said been true.
    2. Tension between OLF and Jawar: The writer used an article from 2009 to make his point and then purposely ignored that Jawar Mohammed led a successful no-competition agreement between OLF and OFC(a party he is a member of)–so much for a person who has tensions with OLF.
    3. Role of Lemma: Partly valid point
    4. Qerroo leaders co-option: The only fully valid point
    .
    6. Oromo Protestant support for Abiy : This is laughable to be polite. Majority of Oromo protestants live in Wallaga and Gujii, the hotspots of the armed insurgency. Are you saying Oromo protestants support Abiy so much that they are leading the insurgency against him?
    7. Loss of faith : OLA is at its strongest and is armed with modern weaponry.

    Advice to the reader:
    You should observe the political surroundings better.

    • Anii akka qaama qeerroo tokkotti qabxiileen kan bareeda. Rakkoo jiru barun furmaataf 50% nama geessa rakkoo jiru dhoksani wanti hunduu gaariidha jechun akka abiy kufaatitti nama geessaa.
      # egocentric # jaallannus jibbinus qabsoo kana anatu asiin gahe qeerroo anatu ijaare …….. kun paartifi namoota heeddu jedhama ture hangan anii beekutti qeerroon kan ABO tii kan caalaatii humna ta’aan ammo kan akka jawar mohammed faati.
      #olf &jawar# jawar ABO ni jaallata nan beeka sochii ABO dadhabisu garu heeddu taasiseera fkn article innii 2009 barreese, anii abba qeerroo jechuu isaa,
      abiy gammachisuf OLA (WBO) hikkachiisuf duula banuu isaa , wal gahii harargeetti nun kana booda waraana bilisaa baasaa osoo hin taane polisii oromiyaa nu barbachisa jedhe duulaa banee…..
      #oromoo protestant in support of abiy#
      Anii protestant dha waldaa hedduu deemera maqaa abiy wamaniitu kadhachafii oluu . Isaattii hin bu’iina innii waaqa irratti nuuf laatame jedhu kana amanuuf ammoo waldalee gidduu gala oromiyaa deemi ni taajabda.

      Walumaa galatti atii hin murteesin

      • Qubee kiyaaf dhiifama naaf godhi-Magaalaa Afaan keenya jibbite keessatin guddadhe.
        #Egocentric Ani kaniin ja’ee wanti kun amma factor tahuu hin danda’u maliifi hundi isaani mana hidhaa jiraanidha malee ego n hin turre hin jirrus ani hinjenne.
        #Jawar Abo dadhabsiisee kan jettetii hin amanu. Malif ABOn yeroo san dadhabee ture kun dhugaa jiru. Garuu Jawariis ummata OPDO amaane dogooggora gurgudda itti aaruu akka dalagee beekamadha.
        #Protestanti ka jettef : namni muraasni akka Abiy Oromodha ja’anii deeggaranitti deeggaru danda’an garu protestantin heddun hin deeggaran. Sila WBO ummatni deggaru batee arra ni jiratani? Ummatni san immo ummata protestantidha.

        Fulduraaf waan akkana Afaan Oromootin baressudha malee afaan faranjittin barressun akka Oromoon qodamee jiruu fi akka waan takkale fiduu hin dandenye itti himudha faranjitti. Galatoomi!

  • Oromo Protestants have been the revivals of Abiy!
    Since the assassination of artist Haacaaluu Hundeessaa by the enemy of the Oromo, and much more extrajudicial killings and mass arrest including Jawaar and Bekele Gerba and others, countless Qeeroo have been joined the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) mainly from the areas said to be confessors of Protestantism. Unlike in the past years where the OLA functions in the areas like Solooloo and Gomboo (Kenya), today, the OLA are almost in all parts of OROMIA. This means, the Qeerroo, who are highly hunted by Abiy Ahmed’s administration for several cases widen the chance to joint OLA for Qeerroo easily. Thus, the future of Ethiopia will be very dangerous unless the Abiy comeback to his normal mind, come to dialogues

  • The qeerroo is no more into peaceful struggle considering they have seen the outcome. They are moving towards armed struggle, something you’re not aware of.

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