TPLF hegemony has ended, but EPRDF power struggle is just beginning

When regional powers battled for control of the kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries, historians called it the Age of Princes. As the EPRDF turns fratricidal, is Ethiopia now entering its Age of Parties?

Since it came to power as a rebel movement in 1991, the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front, under the watchful guidance of its Tigrayan core, has been an overwhelmingly powerful political force.

The three other member parties have been largely subservient to the Tigrayan People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), which imposed its vision, dogma, and policies on the front, and thus the country.

But following the past two years of resistance in the most-populous regions, Amhara and Oromia, TPLF hegemony has crumbled and its formerly junior partners are assertive.

Yet the resulting political jujitsu among squabbling EPRDF siblings is adversely affecting the lives of millions of Ethiopians.

Angered by lost privilege and power, TPLF elements are fomenting conflict in Qemant populated areas of Amhara to undermine the Amhara Democratic Party (ADP), and flirting with the Oromo Liberation Front in Oromia to challenge that state’s now ascendant rulers.

ADP and the Oromo Democratic Party (ODP) hit back by exposing in the media the crimes of TPLF officials such as Getachew Assefa and his deputies at the National Intelligence and Security Service. ADP is also openly supporting the identity questions in Wolqait-Tegede and Raya to demonstrate to Amhara people that it is no more the servant of TPLF.

The Qemant question is an ADP-TPLF flashpoint, but the issues are obscured by TPLF propaganda and destabilization. The 2016 protest in Gondar that ignited the Amhara protests was a watershed moment in recent developments. Besides the demonstration, the stay-home protest that eventually paralyzed the regime started there. In addition, by showing solidarity to the protests in Oromia, it took the struggle to the next stage. Since the start of the resistance in Gondar, the TPLF’s influence has been waning day-by-day, so, is has been trying to pit residents of the Gondar area against each other.

Identity is fluid

Currently, there is no linguistic or cultural difference between Amhara and Qemant and settlements are mixed. Centuries old intermarriage, movement of people and urbanization has resulted in an intermingled linguistically homogeneous society. The case of Qemant and Amhara is just like two Americans who trace their ancestry to different European countries. Their forefathers might have spoken different tongues and differ in culture, but they do not.

EPRDF under the leadership of the TPLF was the government of minorities. Being identified as the member of majority ethnicity like the Amhara or Oromo was perceived to place someone at a disadvantage. Therefore, some Ethiopians were eager to play-up their minority status, even if they were predominantly Amhara or Oromo. But with the waning of TPLF supremacy, such tactics are no longer required, and it might even be a dangerous move in practice considering the rising ethno-nationalist sentiment among the majority groups.  

Identity is fluid in many inter-regional border areas and Amhara and Tigray in particular. The 1991 border demarcation that ignores the historical and natural boundaries between the two has led to bitter controversy. In 1991, a triumphant TPLF was in the heady mood of a victor who grabbed anything it could. But it bit off more than it can chew by incorporating adjacent areas of Gondar (Wolqait-Tegede) and Wollo (Raya) into Tigray. It apparently didn’t consider the long-run ramifications of its action.

In its heyday the TPLF could dictate almost anything to its subordinates. ADP (ANDM), a lapdog since its inception, was not in a position to object to the annexation; it was more inclined to support it to show its loyalty. But with the power shift, things are changing dramatically.

Brothers at arms

TPLF’s contempt towards ADP and both parties willingness put up a fight is a dangerous development. Abiy’s ODP (OPDO) and Oromo ethno-nationalists see the scrap between ADP and TPLF as a great opportunity to weaken their two rivals. They believe that a struggle between the two would clear the way for ODP’s absolute control of the central government.

ODP and ADP have been taking a good cop-bad cop approach to their dealings with TPLF. While ADP is the bad cop that aggressively gave media coverage to the crimes of TPLF officials, ODP was the good cop that showed restraint, until recently. It is only after the TPLF accused the incumbents of violating the constitution at rallies in Tigray that ODP shot back with a program that showed victims of torture on national television.

Amid this internal rivalry, the EPRDF parties have lost a clear unifying political ideology. Revolutionary democracy has already become revelatory kleptocracy. It is no more a secret that multi-billion dollar projects like the Renaissance Dam are plagued by mismanagement and party conglomerates like EFFORT are more a means of exploitation and extraction than competitive and innovative entities. Most of their wealth came from avoiding taxes, winning government contracts without competition, getting prime urban land on the cheap, dodging loan repayments, and similar other preferential treatment by the government.

Amidst the maelstrom, Abiy seems intent on establishing himself as supreme leader for the foreseeable. The introduction of his Republican Guard is reminiscent of the notorious “Abiyot Tibeka” (the Amharic phrase for Revolutionary Guard) of Mengistu Hailemariam and Meles Zenawi’s infamous Agazi commando force.

A powerful Prime Minister has an Achilles Heel

Both previous strongmen used such units to unleash ruthless attacks on rivals. It seems Abiy is taking a page out of their handbooks. There is no clarity about his new personal protection force; the news of its formation and its televised drill was a bolt from the blue. We will see if it is used responsibly or if it will become “Abiy/ot Guard II”.

Abiy understands that Ethiopia’s political culture is conducive to the rise of a strongman and he is thriving on it. But this powerful Prime Minister has an Achilles Heel. Even if he has widespread popular support in Amhara, Addis Ababa and the South, he and his party is yet to get such support from Oromia, the regional state his party rules. OLF is standing in his way. To win the hearts and minds of Oromos, Abiy has been handling OLF with kid gloves, and the latter exploited the situation.

After entering the country in 2018 following the power shift, OLF is strengthening its force in all parts of Oromia and its commanders appears determined to match the firepower of the central government. It is recruiting and training new fighters in areas under its control. Recently its fighters clashed with government forces and its leaders gave defiant press statements. To quote Dawud Ibsa, OLF leader, “There were conflicts in Sellalie, Bale, Guji and eastern Wollega but the major war is going on in western Wollega.”

Selalie is in central Ethiopia, Bale in the south east, Guji in the south and Wollega in the west. It is clear that OLF fighters are entrenched throughout Oromia and in bordering areas that it has long had designs on. Alemu Sime, a top ODP official, accused the emboldened OLF fighters, saying they’d killed officials and taken western Oromia out of control of the government and started to tax people.

With the strong political support it enjoys in parts of western Oromia, OLF is in a good position in its challenge ODP both on the battlefield and at the ballot box. In the upcoming election, there is a chance that OLF could jeopardize the political life of Abiy and his party in Oromia, and by extension in Ethiopia.

Unpresidented ambition

Cognizant of the danger, Abiy might be tempted to change the parliamentary system of the country into a presidential system. Other Oromo political parties have previously shown their appetite for such a change. For example, in the 2005 election political debate, the founder and leader of Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement Bulcha Demeksa argued for a presidential system and made it clear that is his party’s aim because the Ethiopian people wanted to directly elect their leader.

Other Oromo ethno-nationalists may also prefer that, but they might want to wait until after the coming national census, which can be used to legitimize their false claim of Oromos comprising half the population. According to the last census in 2007, Oromos are 34 percent of the population, but elite ethno-nationalists have a record of disseminating incorrect data.

For example, Ezekiel Gebissa, a history professor at Kettering University, claimed that “the Oromo constitute about 50 percent of the population”. Similarly, Awol Kassim Allo, a law lecturer at Keele University in the U.K., said: “Oromos makeup more than almost 40 percent of Ethiopia’s population” for CNN on March 7, 2018.

Under the leadership of ODP, there is a possibility that the upcoming census would be tampered with and so such falsehoods legitimized. Once done, they would push for a presidential system, or a parliamentary system that guarantees at least half of the seats for their ethnicity.

The commission must take utmost care

But changing the system requires amending the constitution and amending the constitution will not be a walk in the park. The founding document of the federation is in fact a bone of contention among Ethiopian elites.

Currently, both Tigrayan and Oromo ethno nationalists want the existing constitution, which was primarily designed by TPLF and OLF, to stay untouched. Whereas the Amhara argue that they were not represented when the constitution was drafted and adopted. Among the Amhara, the constitution is merely the political document of TPLF and OLF that doesn’t take into account their interest.

If there is any constitutional amendment, the Amhara would fight to gain their lost territories of Wolqait-Tegede, Raya and Metekel (currently part of Benishangul-Gumuz region) among others. Amending the constitution means compromising such competing interests and it would be difficult to do it before elections considering they are less than 18 months away.

If you are wondering why the border commission was created, Abiy and his coterie know that it is dangerous to amend the constitution without addressing that issue. But the border disputes cannot be solved without changing the constitution. It is like the chicken-and-egg causality dilemma.

In addition, the border commission could further complicate the problem due to a lack of experience and historical, geographical and political awareness, or even due to some short-sighted political goal. The commission must take utmost care. There are also those, most of them TPLF supporters, who raise a question about its constitutionality.

The Age of Parties?

Many people think that EPRDF has somehow survived the popular revolt of the past three years. And EPRDF has indeed survived—but in name only. The balance of power, ideology, and relationship among member parties has changed significantly and permanently.

ODP under Abiy is enjoying immense power in central government, but OLF is beating them at home. Unlike ODP, ADP has no strong contender in Amhara region, as the National Movement of Amhara (NaMA) is a party created with the blessing of ADP. NaMA is more of the youth branch of reformed ADP than an adversary. NaMA’s leadership also lacks experience. In the short run the two would cooperate rather than compete, but with the aging of the leadership of ADP and gaining of political experience by NaMA, the latter could become the former’s Frankenstein.

Moreover, EPRDF in general, and ADP in particular, are in soul-searching mode in terms of ideology and their future strategy, and forthcoming shifts could bring unexpected conflicts of interest.

Coming to the EPRDF’s southern wing, it is suffering from an inherent weakness of internal rivalry among different ethnic groups in Southern Nations regional state. Most zonal administrations in the area are demanding their own state. Meanwhile, the ruling parties of the five non-EPRDF regions seek a seat at the top table that they have long been denied.

Isayas is not concealing his hostility to TPLF

For the TPLF, the issue of Wolqait-Tsegede and Raya is a nightmare. As if that is not enough, its officials’ crimes are haunting the party. In addition, an ailing leadership is struggling to keep-up with political developments.

Most of the TPLF top guns prospered in the past two decades and they will lose a lot if the situation in the country gets out of control. The location of Tigray, far from the political and geographic center, and the much smaller size of TPLF’s constituency compared with ADP and ODP, puts TPLF at a disadvantage. After it lost federal power, TPLF is no more punching above its weight. But, taking into account the financial, intelligence and military resources it amassed in the last 27 years, it won’t go down without a fight.

It is already undermining both ODP and ADP at home, but TPLF’s gambit could backfire as economic action including blocking roads could intensify and power lines may also be targeted. Most electricity is generated outside Tigray and has to cross Amhara.

Things could escalate and fracture, especially with the inflammatory addition of Isayas Afeworki to the equation. Forgotten and desperate, Eritrea’s autocrat never thought that he would have such a golden opportunity. His legacy as Eritrea’s liberation hero and founding father was tainted by his authoritarian rule and his fall into TPLF’s trap, which alienated and impoverished Eritrea for two decades. Isayas is not concealing his hostility to TPLF and wouldn’t hesitate to avenge his humiliation. His legacy will be determined by how he plays this last game to the long-term advantage of his country.

The political tit-for-tat among EPRDF parties shows it is no longer a unified front that works for a common goal with a shared ideology. It is a collection of factions engaged in medieval-style political intrigue in order to become the country’s dominant force. Ethiopians are likely to suffer increasingly as the struggle intensifies.

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Main photo: From l-r, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed with the leaders of Tigray, Debretsion Gebremichael, and Amhara, Gedu Andargachew; Ethiopian government

Published under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International licence. Cite Ethiopia Insight and link to this page if republished. 

Related Insight

Jan. 1, Team Lemma’s choice: power or peace?

Dec. 16, Violent Qemant dispute fueling explosive Amhara-Tigray divide

Oct. 28, After Eritrea thaw, Tigray’s southern border with Amhara heats up

Oct. 21, Ethiopia: Climbing Mount Uncertainty

Sep 26, Mob killings split Ethiopians as political fault lines test Abiy’s big tent

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About the author

Mastewal Dessalew

Mastewal is a U.S.-based software engineer and a political activist who closely follows Ethiopian politics


  • A completely dishonest and one sided article by an Amhara activist. TPLF is not angered by the loss of ‘power and privilege’ but TPLF is certainly not happy by the way Abiy Ahmed is leading the country. The oppressed people of Qemant are demanding recognition in line with the constitution and has nothing to do with TPLF. Amhara region is almost a failed state as a result of its own doing and not outside interference; there are warlords rooming the streets of the region and the government has proved time and again its inability to maintain law and order. How is it possible the regions President and his colleagues were murdered in broad daylight and no one has been held accountable.
    TPLF is happy the federal system it created is holding well and the chance of Unitarianism making a come back is literally impossible. We have now reached a moment where the chauvinists will be tossed to the garbage bin.

  • One of the best articles I read about the current politics of Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s suffering in my opinion is beginning. As long ethnic politics remains the mainstay of our ill-informed elites. The end result of ethnic politics is bloodshed and destruction. I am very sad that many of us are just watching while the country is being eaten alive by ethnic politics.

  • Highly informative political analysis with a strong doze of realism and objectivity. It could be stronger if it also included the external context and role of foreign actors such as the United States who is responsible by and large for putting both the TPLF and Abiy in power and for underwriting ethnic federalism. The latter could still lead to turning the country into a failed state and to eventually lead to its dissolution and the loss of its national independence. It is still not clear how the urgent task of achieving national unity can take place under the artificial construct of EPRDF which among other things gives TPLF 25 % of the vote with a population base of 6%, even if it is an improvement from the previous vote of 100% before Abiye. There is also missing analysis about the weak national bourgeoise class which has uncontested economic power and is only wedded to a neoliberal framework that cannot pull the country out of poverty as it just a pyramid scheme that works for the very few. A more managed capitalist development is desperately required to make the economy work for the poor, the middle classes and the elites and to check the destructive forces of ethnic divisiveness which will lead to a failed state and to the loss of national independence. For the moment Abiy is the force holding the country and the state together like a glue while a democratic process of bringing in the people to support the process could be found. It is important to keep the people of Tigray and its youth engaged and unalienated in the process as well as the Oromo masses , to stop the transition from unravelling. Abiy and Lemma need resoluteness and support to help check the other destructive force of the leaders of the OLF , who are showing signs of being TPLF mark two. Salvation sometimes comes from the least expected sources. In a country that arguably has a majority of orthodox Christians , all three of its last leaders have a background of evangelical Christians. Few people remember that Meles spent his secondary school days preaching the Pentecost faith among Wingate students

    • There is also the question of what Abiye and EPRDF will and can do about the Jimmy Carter constitution that was grandparented by the Henry Kissinger NSA report to the then American President. By way of the London conference approved by President Carter the TPLF constitution for Ethiopia inherited its ethnic federation clauses that still threaten to destroy the country. The capacity of EPRDF to fix this anomaly is non existent and the solution may be to form a national united front emergency government that could offer the nation a referendum to fix this anomaly . Without such a step an election in 2020 could create the same problem as the 2005 election leading to more bloodshed and chaos and tarnishing the name and goodwill that Dr Abiye currently enjoys, a credit that could easily be squandered. In this way the current radical changes could have the blessing of the public. All political parties, civil society organisations, trade unions , peasant associations, industry groups could all send their reps to such a front with the aim of fixing the problem. It requires strong determination to do this and perhaps EPRDF congress could legislate to make it happen. It may be the better way into achieving a national citizenship that the current arrangement blocks. It could also offer Ethiopians in the diaspora a way to formally reclaim their Ethiopian identity

  • I think that what we need is to move on and not let the past determine our present. Liberation struggle and ethnic mobilization is a relic from the socialist-communist lineage of the Ethiopia student movement. Parliamentary democracy, freedom of speech, freedom of association and pursuit of prosperity and economic freedom are the rule of the game of the 21th century. We will need either to step up our effort to uplift Ethiopia to modern ages or be left behind to the relics our recent miserable past. The present is built through concrete actions now in society, economy and politics that will unleash the potential of our country hardly to through Marxist-Leninist rhetoric of liberation movements.

  • Obviously the writer is displaying what reads like an obsessive political hostility towards things TPLF, perhaps tinged with some ethnic animus. No surprise there… Abiy Ahmed started out with the promise to the country that he was going to be the prime minister of all of Ethiopia. However at the moment it seems like Abiy is running a government of Oromo/Amhara alliance that deliberately excludes TPLF, and perhaps the exclusion of TPLF is a conditionality of the new alliance. If that is the case, it would be an act of betrayal to break the promise he made to the nation. Abiy needs to re-establish good relations with TPLF and reassure the people of Tigray that he cares about their security/safety and well-being. That would be an act of statesmanship on his part. Abiy needs to reclaim the political center the way he started out, it was very refreshing and very hopeful. I believe he can do it again.

  • Dear Mastewal
    You gave us a precise images of Ethiopia’s politics as played by popcorn types of political figures. Nevermind the individual corn that did not popped up they probably did not get enough heat or received more of it and burned. Gedu Andargachew. Debretsion represents is the oxygen of the burning TPLF. He will get burn to ashes. A good thing to Abiy. The troubled sea as is the Ethiopian political political body you depicted precisely seems the natural phenomena in its exact course ending to begin something or finishing without giving birth to any thing. The will of the people there without a big guiding light apart from that of Abiy. The observers of various internal and external forces will materialize as the flashlight of the darkness. That is imaginable when considering the wisdom of the political parties ready and desperate to share or take power to lead by trial and error strategy they have in mind. There remains the resisting body perhaps groups around Abiy to give it a good friction to render them an embattled bodies of political sorties crying foul as usual. Reading your deep analyses, one emerges with this view. One gets the clear picture of the problem and it is that fact that the political leaders have no idea or strategy how to construct and build the nation socially, economically, and politically (administratively) once they dissolved or gotten rid of the ethnic federal system. This is the challenge of the immediate or near future political realty. I am very interested in developing the new strategy for political leaders. Thank you for the good insight you provided us. Interested and wishing to read your perspectives again on Ethiopian politics you know so well.

  • A reasonable deal must be cut between TPLF and other member parties. The former has to give up Getachew Assefa and the latter have to give up on widespread revenge.

    The common ennemy of the whole of EPRDF is the emerging tribalism and widespread pogroms. ADP will struggle in controlling NAMA, just like ODP is struggling to control OLF.

    The Ethiopian way of life, where you live, work, marry, create a family w/o consideration for ethnicity is under threat.
    The nascent Abiyism and a yet to be institutionalized reformed EPRDF is the best option against it. And economic development awaits…

    • TPLF’s phylosophies have been tested and after 27 years of complete havocs it brought to Ethiopia’s social, economic, and political lives, TPLF is better thought burried deep in the ground where it was born. The completions of internal and external crime investigations will end the story of TPLF and Ethiopians Ethiopians shall never revisit TPLF. Tigreans must come up with new idea or join Arena.

  • The article is all about advising ODP to kill OLF. In some places it clearly a based personal opinion, like calming the Oromos are not the majority ethnic group. It is just a propaganda from Amhara camp in form of intellectual argument

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