History teaches us that when change arrives, the best way to deal with it is not to resist, but to adapt

The Nile River, the longest river in the world, stretches across eleven countries. The Blue Nile, its largest tributary, originates from the Ethiopian highlands and flows all the way to Egypt until it enters the Mediterranean Sea. Herodotus, two and a half thousand years ago, claimed Egypt as ‘‘the gift of the Nile’’ because it depended on its water and the fertile soils washed from the Ethiopian highlands.

For Egyptians, this narrative is as true today as it was thousands of years ago—but Egyptians seemingly forget that the river originates elsewhere. They allow its symbolic value to surpass its economic value. Egypt considers any tampering with the Nile River as a matter of life and death. This explains the combative approach of the Egyptian government towards negotiations over ‘‘fair and equitable utilization’’ of the Nile River.

Upper riparian countries that contribute the entirety of the water that reaches the lower basin countries, Egypt and Sudan, made no effort to tame this trans-boundary river in the past.  It was not until 1999 that the nine-nation Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) was set up, launching a series of negotiations over fair and equitable utilization of the Nile River. This showed good progress and culminated in the Cooperative Framework Agreement (the Entebbe Agreement) signed by six out of ten riparian countries in 2010. Egypt refused to sign the agreement and froze its membership in the NBI, disagreeing with upper riparian states over ‘fair and equitable utilisation’. Playing a zero-sum game, it appeared only concerned about the relative gains of other riparian states.

In a broader context, this contention demonstrates tension between the forces of continuity and of change. The assertiveness of the upper riparian countries signified a formidable force of change; a stubborn Egypt stands as an inflexible defender of continuity. Can the force of continuity hold ground when faced by a burgeoning force of change caused by the fundamentally different circumstances of today?

The force of continuity: Egyptian mythology

In any discussion concerning the use of the Nile, Egypt has always boldly claimed historical rights over ‘its water’, including the right to veto any attempt to utilize the river by upstream countries. This claim results partly from a long-held mythology and partly from its erroneous interpretation of treaties and principles of international law. The myth, simply stated, is predicated on the civil law doctrine of res nullius, something belonging to no one or abandoned. The Nile River was adopted by the ancient Egyptians and now it exclusively belongs to Egypt. The underlying assumption was that it could be appropriated by one nation to the total exclusion of others. This is, of course, totally unfounded, and could in fact equally apply to upstream countries, allowing Ethiopia or others to tame the river, with due consideration of others’ rights.

Egypt dressed up its ‘exclusive rights’ with implausible legal arguments, revolving around claims of the binding nature of treaties on (non-involved) parties and the customary law principle of ‘not causing significant harm’. The first is the 1902 Agreement between Britain and Ethiopia on the delimitation of the frontier between Ethiopia and Sudan, though Britain has no more direct interest over the utilization of the Nile River. There has been a fundamental change of circumstances and the principle of state succession does not apply to decolonization.

The post-colonial states, in this case Egypt and Sudan, acquired a distinct and new legal personality. Even if an argument could be made that the treaty was still valid, article III only prohibits actions that ‘arrest’ or totally affect the flow of Nile River to downstream states. No upstream state has ever held such a position, which would be against the principle of causing ‘no significant harm’, a principle to which all upstream riparian countries fully subscribe.

In fact, the 1902 agreement has also been repealed by two subsequent treaties (the 1929 Treaty and the 1959 Treaty), between Egypt and Britain. The 1929 treaty gives Egypt the right to veto any future projects to be developed on the Nile River; the 1959 treaty apportions the water of the entire Nile River between Egypt, Sudan, and evaporation. Ethiopia is not a party to either of these treaties and is not bound by any of their stipulations. A treaty is binding only on the parties which signed it.

Egypt also contended that under customary international law, no state should cause significant harm to the interests (existing or future) of other states. Indeed, although it has yet to be properly defined, the ‘no significant harm’ principle has acquired a customary international law status. Equally, a state which claims that significant harm has been caused to its interests by other state(s) must show the actual existence of such harm. The International Court of Justice, for example, stated Nicaragua must prove the existence of trans-boundary harm, in its judgement on the case between Costa Rica vs. Nicaragua, in para.217.

Egypt has claimed the ‘no significant harm’ factor is relevant to aspects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD), but this is essentially contrary to the Environmental Impact Assessment conducted by the Ethiopian government and the findings and recommendations of the International Panel of Experts. The project is in line with international standards and recommendations of the Panel of Experts.

The most specific claim of Egypt, and the main reason for the recent impasse in the tripartite discussions between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan, concerns the technical issues of prolongation of the filling period and guarantees over periods of drought. Every state has a sovereign right to use the resources within their territory and no form of diktat can affect this. The timing of the filling can only be reached through mutual cooperation, the result of negotiations carried out in good faith. Nothing more, nothing less.

Ethiopia is not constructing the dam for its aesthetic value; it is to bridge the gap between its ever-increasing need for power and the capacity of the state to provide it. Without provision of alternatives or payment of compensation, Egypt has no legal or moral capacity to demand an excessively prolonged period to fill the dam. As for periods of drought, no one can buy insurance policy for an Act of God. Neither Ethiopia nor Egypt has control over drought, but both have reciprocal obligations for sustainable utilization of available resources.

The force of change: #ITSMYDAM!

History teaches us that when real change arrives, the best way to deal with it is not to underestimate it or resist it, but to adapt one’s position through accommodative strategies. The world is full of compromises and excuses, give and take. The situation in Ethiopia has changed and for the better. The late Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Meles Zenawi, made it clear that Egypt should come to terms the changing circumstances and face the realities of the 21st century. No power can stop Ethiopia from unilaterally utilizing its natural resources. The changes came because the increasing population of Ethiopia, now close to 110 million people, calls for commensurate development to provide it with renewable energy. It is part of the moral and legal obligations incumbent upon the government to meet the needs of its population in the fight against poverty.

The Blue Nile is no more an orphan but a child of Ethiopia, previously neglected but now animating every citizen of Ethiopia. The NBI and the Entebbe Agreement have been the result of Ethiopia’s relentless diplomatic efforts, underlined by the national commitment to claim a fair share of the river, symbolized by the launching of the GERD in 2011. If there is anything that unifies the ruling party, opposition, and critics alike, it is the redeemed sense of justice visible in the GERD project.

Indeed, the GERD has as much symbolic as economic value. It is being built by the contributions made by all Ethiopians and as its very name underlines it is a national symbol of unity, justice and power, demonstrating Ethiopians welcome of the ‘return of their prodigal son’. The current diplomatic schism between Ethiopia and Egypt, caused by the failed negotiations, has reinvigorated the general public’s determination to support Ethiopia’s rightful claim over the Blue Nile in general and the unstoppability of the GERD project: ‘it is my Dam!’

The force of change is well supported by the international legal instruments as well. Ethiopia is not bound by outdated and irrelevant colonial treaties. Ethiopia is a sovereign state that has the right to put its natural resources to appropriate use. The only limitation under customary international law is the obligation not to cause significant trans-boundary harm—codified in Art. 2 of the Rio Declaration and upheld by international tribunals and courts here and here. Ethiopia, indeed, has firmly adhered to this principle throughout the negotiations.

Reconciling the irreconcilable

The forces of continuity and change are not mutually exclusive. They can be reconciled if the parties negotiate on the basis of their own interests, rather than mythological positions, when heading to the negotiation table. Egypt must recognise that that Ethiopia provides the lion’s share of the water that reaches Egypt, that it is using a tiny percent of its own water, and that the circumstances have fundamentally changed in the upper riparian states. Ethiopia must not deny the reliance of Egypt on the Nile River and pledge to carry out the GERD project in a manner that does not cause any significant harm downstream. This would allow real negotiations on interests and genuine cooperation would be likely.

The problem has been that Egypt has not been negotiating on the basis of interest, but rather on pre-determined positions—a typical zero-sum game. Had Egypt accepted the basic facts, shown good faith, and been ready to give up its mythical claim of exclusive ownership of the Nile River, agreement on the technical matters, who gets what and when, could easily be reached. Egypt has no right to dictate to Ethiopia how to fill the GERD reservoir but it can negotiate an acceptable outcome, offering compensatory mechanisms or incentives where appropriate. Have these been proposed? It is impossible to provide guarantees against natural disasters like drought, but if parties cooperate in good faith, they can easily work on issues to mitigate any ensuring damage. These are questions that need to be answered, if negotiations are to proceed.

The disruption in the tripartite technical discussions, and Egypt’s refusal to negotiate, have raised concerns about conflict, though no one can afford a devastating war in the 21st century, least of all when the world is being devastated by a global pandemic. As Thucydides stated, ‘‘it is the rise of Athens and the fear that it instilled in Sparta that made the war inevitable.’’ There is no legal or scientific basis for Egypt’s ‘perceived fear’ of potentially significant harm posed by the GERD. Its claim for exclusive use of the Nile River proves nothing but the fact that ‘‘there is a sufficiency in the world for man’s need but not for man’s greed.’’ Above all, the forces of change cannot be contained or ignored. Egypt must understand that its fears are unjustified, and if it is to continue negotiations in good faith, it must stop running after outside powers or playing with ideology.

The Nile is a water resource located in Africa. The parties in dispute are members of the African Union. The solution should be African, not something dictated by the U.S. or arranged through the Arab League. The world has moved on and the solution must provide for sustainable use of the Nile water, in Egypt as in Ethiopia, a common and agreed response for a common problem.

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Editors: Patrick Gilkes, William Davison

Main photo: GERD construction site; 3 April 2020; Ethiopian Press Agency

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Published under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International licence. Cite Ethiopia Insight and link to this page if republished. 

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About the author

Moges Zewdu Teshome

Moges is a former law lecturer at Haramaya University and has law degrees from Addis Ababa University and the University of Dundee. He is a candidate for a Master of Advanced International Studies at Vienna School of International Studies.

44 Comments

  • Dont be angry when Egyptians turn that dam into dust
    Egypt is not just ready for Ethiopia they also ready for anyone alse that will stick up for Ethiopia the Egyptians dont care when it comes to their national security they will take out anyone in their way
    Dont go cry to America cause they arent gonna do anything for you
    You may think your Ethiopian government got this but soon you will find out you all put your self in a big problem with ppl you should messed with 🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬🇪🇬

    • We have been aware of but too patient on Egyptian belligerent action including attempts to destabilize Ethiopia. The dam will be filled and be utilized no matter what. Lookslike we have tried all option except ‘the Stick.’ You know what people talk about ? If Egypt doesn’t stop confrontation, we don’t deal with Abay(Nile) but every one of its tributaries without which Abay is no more Abay. Besides, tacitly, Egypt is not only fighting for its water ‘right’, but the exceptionally fertile soil that came from Ethiopia. Face the fact Egyptians!!!!!!!!!!!

      We are in the 21st century where you can’t continue with the oldest way. Talk, discussion and mutual agreement is the only way. Swallow your ‘pride’ and come back to the roundtable. trust me as brothers we will both win. What I advise Egypt is to think on the sustainability of Nile river by planting trees and assist Ethiopia in its development effort.

  • Wonderfully written!
    Thank you Mr. Moges for the “አንጀት አርስ” contribution. The Blue Nile is no more an orphan but a child of Ethiopia.

  • Dear compatriot Mr Moges Zewdu

    Thank you for sharing your concern and speak up about our Abbay water source.

    Let us join in and share plus spread our knowledge, information, power among Ethiopians.

    It is crucial and timely right now.

    Would you like to contact me :

    Regards

    Areg Gebretsadik –

    lovezac2014@gmail.com

  • I think u r very delusional.Egypt is onion ,tomato ,carrot ….exporting third world country .you are poor like any other countries in this continent.so why sd we invest such amount of money to ensure as u said the future in Africa is for Ethiopia?what is the purpose of kneeling down Egypt??I think u think that Egypt is a super power in Africa.wake up bro.u r hell poor as any country in the continent.Ethiopia is not zat greedy.rather u r created zat way.experts on zero sum game.if Nile is from Egypt ,u won’t allow us to use single cup of it.

  • Well done brother.. This is what they should hear n learn, our northern neighbours have to wake up as time has passed.

    Kamal alhedai
    A columnist from Sudan..
    By the way i missing Addis my best vacation destnation.

  • Ethiopia the aggressor would like to picture itself as the victim of Egypt. Sarcastic … but true ! Egypt is not threatening Ethiopia to cut the water it is Ethiopia that is doing that. Egypt is not the one who negotiated for (9) years only to gain time to build the dam, it is Ethiopia that did that. Egypt is not the one who is not willing to sign an agreement, it is Ethiopia that is doing that. As we all know the dam turbines have been reduced to (12) instead of (16) due to defective dam design. This will not make the dam produce enough electricity Ethiopia was claiming it was trying to accomplish. Ethiopia also has no interest in using all the Nile water for agriculture needs. So the question is, why is Ethiopia doing that ? … for sure it is not the electricity issue ! The answer flat out is … Ethiopia has hidden agendas ! The untold story is that Ethiopia is trying to bring Egypt down to its knees. Ethiopia believes that Egypt is the old history and it is time for it to go, while the future in Africa is for Ethiopia! so lets finish Egypt now … once and for all.

    • Just answer me this. What is the meaning of a natural resource? Is water a natural resource or not? If it is a natural resource don’t we have the right to use it for whatever purpose we wish to use as far as it is within our territory and did not cause significant harm to others. Do you expect Ethiopia to starve by letting the water go down. What surprised me most is that I have never heard a single Egyptian uttering a word ” Let us share it”. All Egyptians say we will not tolerate our “historical share to be touched”. Do you think this is logical ? What is your “historical right” after all? We are the source of the water but you are the one who say “never touch it”. Is it not absurd?

      • Mubarak objected on the construction of the dam because mutual relations went downhill after his assassination attempt in Addis Ababa, before the attempt mutual relations were decent, with the framework signed and multiple bilateral treaties but all went downhill after the attempt.
        When Mubarak resigned in 2011 everyone that succeeded him (delegates, temporary government, Morsi’s government and Sisi’s government) have never objected on the construction of the dam, but instead have been looking towards mutual cooperation for the past 9 years, the whole “greedy Egypt” is complete bullshit, while some naive folk have this thing going in their minds the government doesn’t think the same.
        Ethiopia has the right to generate electricity and revolutionise her industry but not at the cost of Egyptian or Sudanese lives, on the otherhand it’s not fair to ask Ethiopians to fill the reservoir in say 20 years, 6 years is the goal but if Ethiopians can give away 4 more years they would mitigate the damage and prevent a catastrophe in both Sudan and Egypt. It’s a no-brainer that the dam will negatively affect both Sudan and Egypt that If Ethiopia keeps treating the whole filling of the reservoir kind of deal like it’s some sort of a marathon of fighting “colonialism” and “external intervention”. Some Ethiopians think that the Egyptians are some sort of invaders, if the tables were inverted with Egypt building a dam that restricts your water flow you will be all over the place saying it’s unfair. Egypt has built a sizeable amount of desalination stations and water treatment plants in the past few years to help mitigate the damage, but nothing saves the day any better than Ethiopians going a little bit easier on filling the reservoir, buying both Sudan Egypt time.

  • Enough is enough. 60 million people in Ethiopia do not have access to electricity while 100% of the Egyptians have access to power. It is a high time that Ethiopia uses its Natural resources not only to generate electricity but also to irrigate its land with its God given water to feed its population. When Ethiopia tries to feed herself using its own natural resource irrational persons starts to shed a crocodile tears. We reiterate this to the whole world, we have the right to use our own natural resources and feed our population. Let me ask a question. What is the meaning of a natural resource? Is water a natural resource or not? If it is a natural resource don’t we have the right to use it for whatever purpose we wish to use as far as it is within our territory and did not cause significant harm to others. The water flows down ward but not upward. How do they expect us to beg Egypt for our own natural resource? Let me tell you frankly, we Ethiopians are not using Nile water at all. What we know is Abay River. You better stop your outdated narrative of the first user. This is 21st century. We take back what has been stolen from us. Remember what Egypt has been and is still doing to destabilize Ethiopia. I remember the days Cairo opened Amharic Radio program from Cairo to destabilize Ethiopia. It also trained our brothers indoctrinated them with poisons so that a brother picks a weapon against his own brother. But now even though Gods time has come for Ethiopia, we did not say we are the sole user of the water from the river. We simply said let us share it. There is a saying in Ethiopia which says “a person who used to eat like hyena will die the day he starts eating like a man”. Let me reiterate what Egypt was doing. When Ethiopia tried to get fund for the dam construction from the international community, Egypt used all possible means to foil Ethiopia’s efforts. What surprised me most is very same people who refused to fund the dam come now as mediators. That is why I usually say the world is full of injustice. When asked for equitable use of the water Egypt brings forth 1929 and 1959 treaty, Which Ethiopia is not part, which gives 100% of the water to Egypt and Sudan and zero % to other riparian countries. Can a country be abide by a treaty which it did not sign? On the other hand Egypt agrees in the declaration of principle to use the water equitably. After dividing the water between Egypt and Sudan where is the share for us? Egyptians are trying to enforce colonial power treaty on Ethiopia. This is ridiculous. Finally I would like to give word of advice to all concerned; we are in the 21st century. We Ethiopians are God fearing people and I assure you that we will not let you down to die because of water. Let us share it!!! If you are genuine the water is enough for all of us. May God bless us all.

    • The Egyptian government does not want the fall of Ethiopia because they aren’t going to get anything out of it. Your government is washing your brain to make you believe that we are the enemies. I don’t see it like that. In fact I see that we are countries from the same continent in the same planet with the same valuable resources. The Egyptian government made it clear that we do not want to harm Ethiopia and that we support decisions that advance your great country, but not on account. We cannot let you destroy our economy so you can build yours. I am sure that there is a middle peaceful solution that all parties are trying to reach. We acknowledge your right to claim our water. After all, we are on a planet that is not owned by anyone but god. I wish you peace brother, and may God bless us all. Peace ✌️

  • No Sir, your article is full of misleading facts.First,Ethiopia has no shortage of water whatsoever, second there are lots of other places in Ethiopia where dams can be built and needed electricity can be obtained, so why use the only source to Egypt and Sudan?
    Words are not as innocent as you are trying implicate

  • The explanation about z nile & Egypt’s position is informative & detailed. I hope that this explanation focusing on current & timely developments’f z issue’ll continue in z future. Much appreciation & thanks from bottom’f my heart.

  • Tell your fellow Egyptians that if Aswan Dam, Lake Nasir and the irrigated farms caused any harm for the great people of Egypt

  • Great article from the writter.
    Egypt should forget the colonial era agreement which allocates 88% of nile water to Egypt and 0% to Ethiopia signed between Egypt and British in the abscence of Ethiopia eventhough 86% of Nile water is generated from Ethiopia.
    Egypt should never try to harrass Ethiopia using Trump and Arab League in the 21st century as it did during colonia era using British. Blue Nile is african resource. The cooperations and agreements should be completed between africans in Africa. Egypt feels not an African country, let it run ups and downs in Arab/Western countries. Finally it will see that the easiest way to resolve issue related to African resource is to sit down with Africans in equal conditions to have fair share of the resource.
    Never ever intimidate Ethiopia with your war drum. Egypt already tested a defeat twice trying to mess with Ethiopia. Military power superiority never been an issue for Ethiopia and it will never ever be either.
    Best advice for Egypt: Forget feeling superiority, do not be greed and share the Nile water equally with african brothers.

  • Congrats on the GERD! Very happy for you. But ou know what:s funny, there is no love lost in Africa. A continent doomed to remain the world’s doormat because of greedy politicians who try to score points with Nationalists. Just like we have here in the USA… A white nationalist president, who will not hesitate to crush any one country or individual, just for the sake of any political score. Uninformed op-eds like this flag/war waiver show there irredeemable ignorance of historical, environmental, economic and social issue at stack. the 2 countries used to be one, up to the 25th dynasty… Have history not teach Africa anything about fraternity, greed, war, nationalism, messing with the delicate Eco System? Etc, etc… I can’t wait to see the project done… Professor Aswaf Beyene (Ethiopian) of San Diego State University, said based on the average of river flow throughout the year, the max output would be 2000 megawatts not 6000. It is way oversized and make no economic sense…the cost of repair, transmission, storage etc. is so massive, save for Kenya via Koysha. Oh and Kenya, as we speak, has 600 MW surplus.
    Africa, stop beating the war drums, pursue peace and that starts with responsible journalism.

    • Please try to understand the difference between Power and Energy. Energy = (Power X Time.) and it is the amount of water in the reservoir Dam. Therefore if you install 6000MW plant you can run it throughout the year for a smaller period of time than the 2000MW as the fuel (water) in the reservoir is the same. But if your pick load reaches 5000MW for a short period you will have an advantage if the plant is 6000MW. Compare it like driving A Truck and a Sedan with the equal fuel reservoir. The truck can carry huge load but travels a shorter distance before finishing the fuel. And the sedan carries small load but travels longer distance before it finishes the fuel as it consumes less fuel per km than the truck. Therefore deciding on power size depends on study and requirement.

  • Well stated. Egypt overplayed its political muscle to take advantage of Dr. Abiy’s nascent position as PM. Egypt is bullying Ethiopia instead of negotiating in good faith.

    Ethiopia lost the diplomatic game with Egypt, but still face to Egypt so that both countries benefit from the Nile, bring their economy and the people together. In order to do that Egypt should stop bullying Ethiopia.

  • Don’t be lie yourself we are Ethiopian altogether built our dam by destroying Egyptian sabotage not to get financial access to built the dam.

  • That was Awosem comment…liked it Thank you… just remained Egypt that our country is on change and have right to use Abay for any purpose

  • I believe reality is teaching Egypt a lot but it sounds Egypt adopted irritating superiority complex a sickness caused by greed but the fact is that can not change the reality on the ground.
    Ethiopia has to stop asking Egypt any opinion or suggestions in future because Egyptian mind set is always bullying others even if it has nothing to contribute to others.
    We learned on the wholly book how stubborn Egypt was when Israel seek its freedom after 400 years of Slavery under brutal arm of King’s of Pharaoh.

  • A good read, specially to counter all the unilateral narratives that have dominated in Egypt, leading its people blind alley.
    To add my opinion, does the case cited have much exact relevance with the case of Nile. It was rendered on the issue of navigable watercourse (and partly fishery of course) I think.
    The alternatives (particularly compensation) recommended, which also have been proposed by German researchers, should not also be given (personally for me), before much research is done on it, as it restricts Ethiopia’s sovereignty. (In fact the author has elucidated that it should also be made on negotiation).

  • I live in Israel, I say something that may be useful to you. The Ethiopian Dam will be destroyed by many countries in agreement with the Nobel Prize-winning Ethiopian Prime Minister

  • This is the bitter truth Egypt should swallow.
    We have been aspiring to eat and drink the fruit of ABBAY through out our history and now is the time. Well done!

  • I think the importance of the Ethiopian dam is a great lie promoted by the Ethiopian government and the coming days. It is the major conspiracy against the great Ethiopian people, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, who won the Nobel Prize in exchange for the destruction of Ethiopia and its entry into conflict with friendly countries such as Egypt and others and the destruction of the Ethiopian economy.You also mislead the I think the importance of the Ethiopian dam is a great lie promoted by the Ethiopian government and the coming days. It is the major conspiracy against the great Ethiopian people, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, who won the Nobel Prize in exchange for the destruction of Ethiopia and its entry into conflict with friendly countries such as Egypt and others and the destruction of the Ethiopian economy.You also mislead the poor Ethiopian people Ethiopian people

    • What you think doesn’t really matter but what’s happening, boy! wait and see that pharaoh’s ego and councillings will fail as PM Abiy’s negotiation plan dries out and since our kindness mistaken for weakness, Ethiopia will change the situation up side down to the point we the people will decide and demand wheather compensation or payment for each drop of our resource to the point all your farm lands will be no more!
      You will buy our electricity, freshwater, vegetables and so on.
      I’ll tell you again that Pharaoh had been riding for free but no more.
      We will serve Egypt and charge Pharaoh the bill!

    • I don’t blame you. your government never show you freedom Britain left you with a colonized roll that what your government follows until this time now Egypt people are mentally slaving never been independent always look for help or begging for help so don’t worry about Ethiopian you should worry about you when are you going be free, please thank the 21st century you don’t have anything to worry about Ethiopian. your military dictator miss calculates you know the outcome we can work together for all of us benefit but you have to stop your shrewdness because you try all kind shrewdness did not work also is not going to work!

    • Really are you cheat your salf thinking that you are cheating others the GERD now the metal fram work is complited and we will fill water the coming July .

  • oh bro great work am really proud of u.
    u sighted the recommendations very well
    and i hope their is not a better recommendations to elevate the ongoing dispute with respect to the GERD in particular and the nile river in general.
    keep it up moge.

    • Impressive read!. Thank you for the contribution. The issue is; do the greedy Egyptians/ their alike politicians access and such fair and truthful articles? That might contribute to bring down ( by few %) their egoistic bully move. One thing must be clear; as clearly stated in the reading that Ethiopia will not ask Egypt’s permission on the schedule of filling its dam!

      • I think the case of the Dam is not as simle as that writing noonsons opinion emanted fron naive nationalism. WE Ethiopins are very well aware what to do , expect from our side to do, and what is goioing to be done. WE have no place for Chauvinistic idea wheather it comes from the leaders of Egypt or some people who could delebrately denied the 21st century reality. We have the history of unbeaten record for our enemeies. WE beleieve the Egytians are friends of ETHiopian people. If leaders of Egypt think and act erroniously, the time will surely come to give them the lnecessary lesson.

        • Please do not throw heavy stone one over the other, we are all brothers. We should think like a matured person not like a kid. We should settle down and reveal reality.The Egyptian said ” You should not touch the water, simply see the river as you did before”. Ethiopia says ” We are poor and should not remain poor we should utilize the available resource in equitable manner”. Now, Egypt population has 100% electricity coverage while Ethiopia less than 40%. This is the existing reality. Therefore do not lessen to your ego, political leaders or history but use your mind and Judge. Do not boast or insult each other rather reveal realities and debate.
          Thank you

          • The dam will definitely improve Ethiopia and I wish the best for Ethiopia, what I don’t like is that the negotiations bore no fruit during the whole 9 years, just a bunch of yellow smiles with no agreements, nobody said that Egypt wants to own 100% of the water, if someone did then it got to be some naive nobody that’s insensitive towards other African countries spitting nonsense left and right.
            Egypt for the past 9 years never objected on the construction of the dam and have always looked forward mutual cooperation to mitigate the damage, yet Ethiopia chose to skip multiple meetings and refused to go along a bunch of agreements (which is acceptable, nobody is forced to agree)
            Just take in mind that Egypt and Sudan want to make some board of experts to assess the damage/take action if something goes wrong but Ethiopia sees that as external intervention/attack on its sovereignty which is met by refusals, skipped meetings and disagreements.

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